Unfamiliar Existence in the Industrial Area: Creative Art Space

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Unfamiliar Existence in the Industrial Area: Creative Art Space
Kim Kyuwon, Chief of Culture and Arts Research Division, Korea Culture & Tourism Institute
1. The development of Industrial Complex
1) The beginning of industrial complex
In the 19th century, German landowner and scholar Johann Heinrich von Thünen first came up with an idea which is later known as Isolated State theory that includes the equation.
L = Y(P − C) − YDF.
L : Locational rent (in DM/km2) ,Y : Yield (in t / km2), P : Market price of the crop (in DM / t),
C : Production cost of the crop (in DM / t)
D : Distance from the market (in km), F : Transport cost (in DM / t / km)
The industrial location theory originated from this simple equation in a way that can reduces D and F.
  Chart 1) Thünen's odel

Thünen's model: the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) dairy and market gardening; 2 (green) forest for fuel; 3 (yellow) grains and field crops; 4 (red) ranching; the outer, dark green area represents wilderness where agriculture is not profitable1) An online encyclopedia2) defines location theory as follows:
Choosing industrial location is mere an economic activity but the location is related to other factors than economics. Therefore, although location theory is usually considered an area of economics, it also needs to be addressed from other fields' point of views. German agricultural economist J. H. von Thünen (1783~1850) said in his book "Isolated State" that agricultural location is decided based on the balance between the capital intensity and locational rent around markets. In another book titled "Theory of the Location of Industries", A. Weber (1868~1958) studied industrial location, considered freight rates of resources and the finished goods along with labor costs per product as location factors and identified the optimal location with the least combined cost mentioned above. He said industrial clustering also could affect the decision of location. Later, location theory became further generalized by including market and clustering issues. Recently more important issues such as urbanization and environment are also being considered.
This theory is based on the assumption that individuals and conditions are equal. The individual is an "economic person." Every industrial complex started after industrial clustering happened because of better accessibility such as reduced distance and lower transportation costs.
The Ministry of Knowledge Economy defines the industrial complex through clustering as follows.3)
● Introduction: Industrial complex refers to lands designated and developed according to a comprehensive plan to collectively build housing, cultural, medical, tourism, athletic and welfare facilities for employees and users. It is aimed at enhancing the function of facilities such as factories, intellectual and IT industry-related, resource storing establishments and relevant educational, communications and distribution system.
● Features: According to the subject of rights to manage the facilities, there are government-run national industrial complex, municipal government-run local industrial complex, local government-run agricultural and industrial complex and Foreign Investment Zone for foreign investment enterprises. National industrial complexes are managed by consigned Korea Industrial Complex Corporation.
● Major responsibilities of Korea Industrial Complex Corporation: managing industrial complex, creating innovative clustering of industrial complex and new industrial space, providing financial and human resource support, building factories in proxy, supporting joint logistics, establishing integrated information networks for industry-university-institute collaboration, researching and studying industrial location, fostering eco-industrial parks and installing information system for building and operating factories, for supporting joint logistics and for industry-university-institute collaboration.
In short, industrial complex is land where workers, users and facilities get clustered to improve
industrial efficacy.
2) Course of Korean Industrial Complex
To retrace the development process of Korean industrial complex, I will briefly tell you based on the book "Finding Hope in Industrial Complex Again" by Bongkyu Park.4) We can see the whole changes that took place in Korean industrial complex from the 1960s until now by referring to the following table.
Chart 2) Change of Industrial Complex: A study on structural change of firms in industrial complex
① The Beginning of Planned location in the 1960s
According to the first five-year economic plan of 1962, clustered industrial complex began being built with almost nothing. This was the time when economic development was initiated by building clustered industrial complex without any modern industrial basis. The Ulsan Industry Center (UIC, the current Ulsan Industrial Complex) was designated as the nation's first industrial complex in 1962 and Guro was appointed as the Korea Export Industrial Corporation (the current Seoul Digital Industrial Complex) and built in April 1967. UIC became the country's largest heavy chemical industrial complex that later shifted its focus from fertilizer to petrochemistry, automobiles and finally shipbuilding. Guro reemerged as a IT industry-focused venture complex departing from its initial focus on light industry such as textile and needlework.
② Promoting Heavy Chemical Industry in the 1970s
This period was the time when major large-scale national industrial complexes were built in the regions such as Changwon, Gumi, Yeosu, Banwol, Siwha. The Korean Mechanical Industrial Complex in Changwon, is the venue for burgeoning mechanical industry in 1973. The Gumi industrial complex is the cradle of electronics industry. The construction of the Yeosu National Industrial Complex began in 1976, was completed in 1979 and later became a petrochemical complex. The capital area's largest Banwol Industrial Complex and Banwol New Town in Ansan were built to disperse the population and industries concentrated around the capital. As a follow-up work, the construction of Siwha Industrial Complex had begun and was completed in 1995.
Pursuing balanced and private-led growth in the 1980s
In this period, the government developed numerous agricultural and industrial complexes in order to limit the concentration of industries in the capital area and foster small businesses. It built national industrial complexes in Incheon, Gunsan and Daebul and many other local industrial and
agricultural complexes in order to collectively relocate small businesses in Seoul to local areas.
④ Advancing industrial structure in the 1990s
After the amendment of the act on industrial location and development, the term "technical industrial complex" was expanded to broader industrial complex including new growth industries as well as manufacturing industries. The government tried to advance industrial structure and to improve quality of industrial location by supporting new growth industries and developing various industry-related areas such as logistics, housing, welfare in more comprehensive way. Construction of high-tech industrial complexes through academic-industrial cooperation began to foster high-tech industries and reinvigorate local economies. The high-tech industrial complexes in Gwangju andOsong are major examples and techno-parks and media valleys were also built across the nation. Moreover, innovation of Seoul Digital Industrial Complex (SDIC) was finally achieved.
⑤ Rebirth of industrial complex in the 2000s
The academic term "cluster" started to be reflected on the ground. After the act on revitalizing industrial cluster and establishing factories was modified in 2003, a plan to enhance innovative cluster of industrial complexes was finalized and promoted in 2004. At this point, a cluster was created as a space for housing, research, production separating from existing industrial location polices.
Chart 3) the current distribution of the nation's industrial complexes (www.e-cluster.net)
Chart 4) the current areas of mini clusters in every complex (www.e-cluster.net)
In other words, a technical complex aiming at achieving basic efficiency through getting together has evolved into a more comprehensive industrial complex through clustering. Against this backdrop, the government policy also started shifting toward building a multi-level, complex industry-led "creative city" focused not only on industry and research but also on welfare, culture, ecology and environment. Industrial complex encounters creative activities and spaces including Seoul Art Space Geumcheon at this point.
2. The present conditions of Seoul Digital Industrial Complex (SDIC)
1) Plans of SDIC
Seoul Digital Industrial Complex is a new name of The Korea Export Industrial Complex, the country's first national industrial complex built to contribute to export promotion and a balanced national economic development.5)
The outline by complex of SDIC
● The future of SDIC projected by basic management plan6)
1. General status
A. Establishment purpose
◦ to contribute to export promotion and a balanced national economic development
B. Details of projects
◦ ’63. 10. 26 founding The Korea Export Industrial Complex Corporation
◦ ’64. 4. 15 designating the 1st complex (notification no.528 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’64. 8. 12 establishing The Korea Export Industrial Complex
◦ ’64. 8. 14 notification of industrial area (notification no1034 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’64. 9. 14 enacting and proclaiming an act on building export industrial complex(act no.1656)
◦ ’65. 6. 16 designating the 4th complex (notification no1034 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’65. 11. 23 establishing Incheon export industrial complex
◦ ’67. 10. 28 designating the 2nd complex (notification no715 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’69. 8. 5 designating the 4th complex (notification no.82 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’70. 1. 5 designating the 3rd complex (notification no.1 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’71. 11. 24 integrating Incheon export industrial complex
◦ ’73. 12. 8 designating the 6th complex(notification no.116 of the Ministry of Construction)
◦ ’75. 12. 31 enacting and proclaiming an act on managing industrial complex (act no.2843)
◦ ’90. 1. 13 enacting and proclaiming an act on locating industry and building factories (act no.4212)
◦ ’91. 1. 28 notifying sections by use of national industrial complex(notification no.191-1 of Ministry of Commerce and Industry)
◦ ’97. 1. 9 establishing the Korea Industrial Complex Corporation
◦ ‘09. 8. 12 changing the basic management plan of industrial complex(notification no.2009-167 of the Mistry of Knowledge Economy)
◦ ‘10. 6. 15 changing the basic management plan of industrial complex(notification no.2010-122 of Ministry of Knowledge Economy)
C. Status of occupation
※ The area is reference area after the change of plan in June 2010 and future plan is estimates of the program for the year. The above data is subject to change by demand for occupation.
2. Basic management direction
A. fostering research and development oriented, high-tech information and knowledge industrial
B. creating techno-parks for promoting venture industry
C. effectively utilizing land and establishing eco-friendly industrial complexes
D. providing support for occupying firms to sharpen its competitiveness by expanding exports and enhancing productivity
E. expanding amenities for improved standard of living of employees
3. Basic management plan
A. Section by use of industrial land
(1) area of section by use
(unit: ㎡, %)
B. locating plan by business
(1) SDIC's (the 1st, 2nd, 3rd ones) plan to relocate industries
   a) realigning SDIC into four major sections of high-tech information and knowledge industry such as high-tech, venture, fashion-design, other knowledge industries
   b) setting target period and pursuing in the mid and long-term
     1) target period: 1997 - 2006 (10years)
     2) guarantee of industrial activities of the existing occupants

(2) SDIC's future
According to Korea Industrial Complex Corporation, mini clustering structure, a future model of
industrial complex includes the following functions for enterprises, universities and other
supporting organizations.
The basic management plan (2010) suggests future functions of SDIC: A. fostering research and development oriented, high-tech information and knowledge industrial complex B. creating techno-parks for promoting venture industry C. effectively utilizing land and establishing eco-friendly industrial complex D. providing support for occupying firms to sharpen its competitiveness by expanding exports and enhancing productivity E. expanding amenities for improved standard of living of employees. Another study7) pointed out future tasks of urban high-tech industrial complex: making the complex more innovative through consistent maintenance of infrastructure, improving cultural and housing environment to make them appeal to professionals in knowledge-intensive industry, creating innovative environment to double creative synergy and retraining manpower, key factor of innovation.
Chart 5) A new leap forward and future development plan of Seoul Digital Industrial Complex
(Kim, Seonwoong, 2005)
We now consider ambiguous concepts like 'arts and creativity' or 'creative city' where various professional functions get clustered in quality environment with well-equipped housing and also promotes creative thinking, ideas and innovation.
3. Art-creating space and the transformation of industrial complex
1) Growing expectation of arts and creative activities in communities
The key of this study is to reconsider the role of arts. Arts can simply mean well-known "creative city." American urban studies theorist Richard Florida explained arts with his new concepts such as the 3T (Talent, Technology, Tolerance) and Bohemian index (the ratio of the creative class in the society). Otherwise, arts can include artists themselves and creative activities as Kang Hyonggi8) points out. He wrote,
we might need to create a tolerant urban space where new ideas can be freely expressed and effectively realized in order to draw new creative talents. Those who are engaged in creative fields such as design, arts education, music, science, entertainment want to live in a city with an atmosphere of freedom above all things. The creation of arts, culture, science requires free and liberal atmosphere...(omitted)...This is why creativity of individuals and organizations can be promoted only in an environment where free competition, freedom of thoughts and expressions are guaranteed.
It is true that culture and arts make a city look cooler and more sophisticated. I wonder, however, if the existence of arts and culture can really make the city creative.
A study9) shows features of Geumcheon district and suggests various art programs for the community including painting walls, operating culture clubs, providing regular performing arts, installing sculptures, decorating parking lots, interior design, teaching graphic arts and imaging technology, holding cultural festivals for the community, providing places to relax, operating cultural libraries, keeping records of local culture, replacing worn-out wall painting, designing surroundings of garages, managing cultural cure programs for workers in transportation business etc.
I wonder what roles and values of artists and arts are for. Bringing innovation to a community
through arts can be explained in two ways.
1. Introducing artists or creative activities into a community
- Aim: To make the community more creative and more sophisticated
- Suggestions by case study10) : wall paintings, sculptures, performances, design of parking lots,
rest places, garages etc.
2. Inducing changes through creative activities within a local community
- Aim: To realize social value of culture and build the cultural community
- Suggestions by case study11) : operating cultural libraries, small culture clubs, checking interior design and management, hosting cultural festivals, keeping cultural records etc.
Activities suggested above are programs produced by combined contents and members of "arts creation organization" and "culture enjoyment organization." General cultural organization includes not only the venues for enjoying culture such as theaters, museums, galleries, libraries, culture houses, culture centers but also relevant organizations such as welfare centers and town halls in a broad sense while creative organization is limited to creative studios, ateliers, exhibition centers.
But activities by these creative and cultural organizations are sometimes overlapping and lacking each distinctiveness. For example, "the project to send writers to libraries and literature centers," "the project to support resident organizations in theaters" by culture centers and other culture, welfare, education projects by libraries and museums are overlapping at the beginning stage; projects to design wall paintings and "town arts projects" by the Korean Arts Association are also conflicting. In other words, these activities can be done by general cultural organizations including culture centers, culture houses, libraries and relevant associations without creative organizations of professional artists run by Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture.
Now we need to reconsider what activities and roles of creative organizations will be in active creation and exchange of arts in Seoul Digital Industrial Complex. Art professionals need to play a more important and innovative role in helping SDIC to become a high-tech industrial complex. The encounter between artists and SDIC might allow both arts and industry to evolve in a more
"avant-garde" or innovative way.
2) Roles and values of arts
Park, Shineu12) said in the work, the aesthetics of "inconveniences" disturbing our daily lives, embrace the inconveniences that arts has existed for the purpose of disturbing our daily routine and should continue to do this job even in the digital era.
Arts can bring about creation and creativity by unsettling our routine lives and thoughts to provide a new environment open to totally "different ideas" and "different values". This is one of values of modern art. Festivals in our everyday lives such as carnivals have a similar role in disrupting daily routines.
Mircea Eliade13) found the value of festivals in daily lives is achieved at the point of stopped time and changing space. She described festivals as activities breaking away from routines in overlapping and ambiguous areas such as changing seasons from winter to spring and halfway point between private and public sphere. Mikhail Bkhtin14) more provocatively referred to carnivals as a way of inverting and overcoming official and symbolic existing order. He said this carnivalesque "inversion" means creating chaos to and overthrowing established values, systems and ideas.
Bakhtine and Eliade believed that the "inversion" by arts serves as the driving force behind development and transformation of society and its structure. As they pointed out, the most powerful strength of arts might lie in allowing us to have a fresh look at the world in an "inconvenient" way. Creativity can be achieved only when brand new ideas are created by disturbing existing values and finally embracing brand new ideas.
The following basic management plan of the country's most high-tech SDIC or the vision and philosophy of industrial practitioners at the forefront can be advanced by this "inverting" power of modern arts: A. fostering research and development oriented, high-tech information and knowledge industrial complex B. creating techno-parks for promoting venture industry C. effectively utilizing land and establishing eco-friendly industrial complex D. providing support for occupying firms to sharpen its competitiveness by expanding exports and enhancing productivity E. expanding amenities for improved standard of living of workers.
Therefore, creativity might come not by "making people familiar" such as "being acquainted", "building networks" and "experiencing creative activities through education" but by "making people uncomfortable or unfamiliar."
3) Illusion about creativity and creative city
R. Florida15) suggested in his book titled Cities and Creative Class that basic features of a creative city are the 3T (Talent, Technology, Tolerance) but he failed to address this 3T features in depth. He just mentioned about creative talents, innovative and cutting-edge technology and most noticeable tolerance explained by "Gay, Bohemians and Melting Pot Index."
He said the creative class can bring changes to daily lives in forms of "the no-collar workplace", "multiple interests", "time warp", "creative community." He16) cited Ireland as an example of creative city, saying that "Today, streets are filled with various types of people from dressed-up entrepreneurs to eccentric software developers to artists dressed in trendy dark clothes to Bohemian musicians. By blending history and progress, Ireland successfully turned its cities like Dublin into a living center of dynamic and creative people who want to enjoy recreation."
The people said might be hipsters17) as "the subject of consumption" rather than creative or innovative talents. I wonder if these roaming hipsters can really bring about the advent of a new world.
Japanese urbanist of creative city, Sasaki Masayuki18) said the reason she think Barcelona is a creative city is that
first, the energy of modern art can be felt across the city and the citizens can fully enjoy creative activities...(omitted)...keeping this creative energy alive throughout its history made the city creative. Secondly, this creativity leads to the development of creative industries, which in turn becomes a new engine for creating jobs and wealth..omitted... Third, the citizens have high-level autonomy.
In other words, she suggested a creative city has quality creative organizations or facilities, artists and clustering creative industries. This conditions, however, can not be an adequate criteria to relocate creative organizations, talents and activities and devise related programs. A discussion focused on the aura or the presence of arts rather than its proper areas and values is not about cultural policies in specialized areas but about just urban management plan. This approach is not enough to address the issue of how to further develop SDIC into a more creative space.
The importance of cutting-edge and innovative technology is already suggested in the key map of structure advancing plan19). Now, the basis for developing technology is being established.

4. Conclusion: UFO - values and status of creative space
The most experimental creative space requires the following conditions of UFO (Unidentified Flying Object).
● U: Unidentified - ambiguous and unidentified space for experiment
● F: Flying - relating with arts in a way that keeps some distance and gives unfamiliarity and
tension to some extent
● O: Object - mutual relations where we can observe and be observed
In an environment where the most leading artistic experiments are conducted and support of resources, system, manpower is provided, creative activities which is not cut-and-dried can thrive. These activities spark creative tension with the existing daily lives, industries and environments in
a community and have a long-lasting impact on the community. I believe we need creative spaces which can draw creativity by allowing people to feel uncomfortable at first but finally be awakened to a "brand new approach." In this regard, I will examine the possibility that creative spaces could co-prosper with local creativity, being differentiated from other cultural organizations, facilities, or activities.
Seoul Art Space Geumcheon is the only glocal creative space in Seoul. Seoul metropolitan clusters such as the SDIC are also becoming a global hub of knowledge-based materials industry. These creative spaces with both industry and arts at the forefront need to find a win-win strategy to promote the most innovative and experimental activities beyond general "cultural welfare and services" in a community.
2) Naver encylopedia, location theory
4) Bongkyu Park, Finding Hope in Industrial Complex Again, Parkyoungsa, 2010.
5) Seoul Economy, economy focus, A new leap forward and future development plan of Seoul Digital Industrial complex, Kim, Seonwoong, abstracts from 2005.
6) summarized basic management plan of The Korea Export Industrial Complex Corporation 2010.06.
7) Modernization of Seoul Digital Industrial Complex and future tasks. Industrial location policy no. 56. 2010.
8) Kang, Hyonggi, Local creation, trees of thoughts, p.117, 2010.
9) Jung, Heesun (lead author), Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture, A study on analysing the current situation of local industries in Geumcheon and planning community-based culture and arts programs, 2010.
10) Jung, Heesun (lead author), Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture, A study on analysing the current situation of local industries in Geumcheon and planning community-based culture and arts programs p.124, 2010.
11) Jung, Heesun (lead author), Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture, A study on analysing the current situation of local industries in Geumcheon and planning community-based culture and arts programs p.124, 2010.
12) Park, Hongkyu et al, The Joy of Culture, Bookhouse, 2005.
13) Eliade Mircea, Le sacre et le profane, Paris, Gallimard, 1965.
14) Bakhtine Mikhail, L'Oeuvre de Francois Rabelais et la culture populaire au Moen Age et sous la Renaissance, Paris, Gallimard, 1970.
15) R. Florida, Cities and the Creative Class, Pureungil, 2008.
16) R. Florida, Creative Class, E-Newspaper. pp.450-451, 2002.
17) Hipsters refers to 'cutting-edge consumers' or 'defiant consumers' by Tom Frank. This term does not mean those who actually create arts rather those who roams around freewheeling places. These people are not called an artist but just a punk, vanity or a fan. Their "arts" is mass consumption of categories of products unknown to many others such as vintage T-shirts, jeans, food in vogue, n+1. Attention to Hipsters. Marti. p.89, 2010.
18) Sasaki Masayuki, complete study and development institute, Design creative city. Miseum. p.23, 2010.
19) Jeong, Kyonghyo, Strategy for the specialized development of Seoul Digital Industrial Complex, economic issues for autonomous districts, Seoul Economy, 2006.